I'm interested in language change – new words are being made up by individuals all the time and some spread like wildfire. But how does one spread a new word intentionally? People have to hear it enough, decide it fits the bill and use it themselves.
In a previous post "Tea: food or drink?", I lamented the confusing situation of "tea" in England – it can mean the drink, a (calorie-laden) snack, or a meal; and the timings and content differ according to region and class (unfortunately still a part of British society).
I ended that post with the recommendation that we use the word "fourses" to indicate tea with bakery goods in the afternoon. Afterall, if we can have "elevenses" as morning coffee or tea, why can't we have "fourses" as the afternoon equivalent. That would certainly solve the vexing problem, when you are invited to have "tea", that you don't know if it's a meal or not. Being invited to "fourses" is clear. Isn't it?
Help me out! Spread the word, and enjoy your afternoon tea with biscuits/scones/cake or whatever....
Friday, 1 March 2013
|Dry stone wall in England|
Dry stone walls are a feature of the English countryside. Once they are built, they tend to stay put forever for two reasons. Because dry stone walls are a product of clearing rocky ground that cannot be farmed, they tend to enclose pasture for sheep. Unlike fertile crop fields surrounded by hedgerows, stone walls are not destroyed to enlarge the fields; hundreds of miles of hedgerows have been lost to such "efficiency" enlargements.
Secondly, it takes a long process of natural invasion by plant life to deconstruct a well built wall; and then one is left with a pile of rocks in the landscape instead. It is sobering to think that most of the 250,000 miles of dry stone walls in Britain are at least 200 years old, and some date back to the Neolithic, 5500 years ago.
So now you've read this far thinking, "what is a dry stone wall?". A very complicated structure indeed that takes knowledge to build and to maintain. The Guardian ran an article on dry stone walling where an expert explains exactly how to build one. It is one of the traditional crafts of the countryside, along with roof thatching, hedge laying, blacksmithing, stonemasonry – what The Guardian calls "disappearing acts". The video accompanying the article has drawn a number of interesting comments. You can learn a lot from these resources and even find out how to attend courses and become a dry waller.
In closing, take a look at this new version of a dry stone wall. Now, if this isn't ingenious, I don't know what is!
|New-style dry stone wall for a bike shed in Cambridge|